Relevant Technology

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Short Type Description Available Usesr Pros Cons
UV (Ultraviolet) UV (Ultraviolet) Light refers to the region of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays, with a wavelength falling between 400 and 10 nanometers. This electromagnetic radiation is not visible to the human eye, because it has a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than the light our brain perceives as images. An easy way to remember UV light's placement on the electromagnetic spectrum is to examine the ends of the visible light spectrum: Red is the light with the longest wavelength, and Violet is the light with the shortest wavelength. Therefore, light with a wavelength longer than any light in the visible spectrum is called Infrared Light, and light with a wavelength immediately shorter than any light in the visible spectrum is called Ultraviolet Light. (Stanford Solar Center: www.solar-center.stanford.edu/about/uvlight.html) See below
UV-A UV-A light (320-400nm) is UV light with the longest wavelength, and the least harmful. It is more commonly known as "black light", and many use its ability to cause objects to emit fluorescence (a colored glowing effect) in artistic and celebratory designs. Many insects and birds can perceive this type of UV radiation visually, along with some humans in rare cases such as Aphakia (missing optic lens). (Stanford Solar Center: www.solar-center.stanford.edu/about/uvlight.html) Blacklights used to identify germs. Also used in lighting. Useful Fun None
UV-B UV-B light (290-320nm) causes sunburns with prolonged exposure along with increasing the risk of skin cancer and other cellular damage. About 95% of all UV-B light is absorbed by the ozone in Earth's atmosphere. (Stanford Solar Center: www.solar-center.stanford.edu/about/uvlight.html) Environmental exposure Cancer. Sunburns.
UV-C UV-C light (100-290nm) is extremely harmful and is almost completely absorbed by Earth's atmosphere. It is commonly used as a disinfectant in food, air, and water to kill microorganisms by destroying their cells' nucleic acids.
(Stanford Solar Center: www.solar-center.stanford.edu/about/uvlight.html)
Disinfection and sanitization Clean and easy way to sanitize. No mess. Harmful to humans, only use in
Deep UV-C UV-C – Deep light (230-280nm) is a sub spectrum of the UV-C spectrum and is typically the type of UVC light found on commercial applications. Disinfection and sanitization

Sanitizing & Purification Technology

Short Type Description Available Uses Pros Cons

UV (Ultraviolet)

UV (Ultraviolet) Light refers to the region of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays, with a wavelength falling between 400 and 10 nanometers. This electromagnetic radiation is not visible to the human eye, because it has a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than the light our brain perceives as images. An easy way to remember UV light's placement on the electromagnetic spectrum is to examine the ends of the visible light spectrum: Red is the light with the longest wavelength, and Violet is the light with the shortest wavelength. Therefore, light with a wavelength longer than any light in the visible spectrum is called Infrared Light, and light with a wavelength immediately shorter than any light in the visible spectrum is called Ultraviolet Light.

(Stanford Solar Center: www.solar-center.stanford.edu/about/uvlight.html)

See below

   

UV-A

UV-A light (320-400nm) is UV light with the longest wavelength, and the least harmful. It is more commonly known as "black light", and many use its ability to cause objects to emit fluorescence (a colored glowing effect) in artistic and celebratory designs. Many insects and birds can perceive this type of UV radiation visually, along with some humans in rare cases such as Aphakia (missing optic lens).

(Stanford Solar Center: www.solar-center.stanford.edu/about/uvlight.html)

Blacklights used to identify germs. Also used in lighting.

Useful

Fun

None

UV-B

UV-B light (290-320nm) causes sunburns with prolonged exposure along with increasing the risk of skin cancer and other cellular damage. About 95% of all UV-B light is absorbed by the ozone in Earth's atmosphere.

(Stanford Solar Center: www.solar-center.stanford.edu/about/uvlight.html)

Environmental exposure

 

Cancer. Sunburns.

UV-C

UV-C light (100-290nm) is extremely harmful and is almost completely absorbed by Earth's atmosphere. It is commonly used as a disinfectant in food, air, and water to kill microorganisms by destroying their cells' nucleic acids.

(Stanford Solar Center: www.solar-center.stanford.edu/about/uvlight.html)

Disinfection and sanitization

Clean and easy way to sanitize. No mess.

Kills airborne flu viruses.

Harmful to humans, only use in unoccupied spaces.

Deep UV-C

UV-C – Deep light (230-280nm) is a sub spectrum of the UV-C spectrum and is typically the type of UVC light found on commercial applications.

Disinfection and sanitization

Clean and easy way to sanitize. No mess.

Kills airborne flu viruses.

Harmful to humans, only use in unoccupied spaces.

Far UV-C

UV-C – Far light (200-225nm) is a sub spectrum of the UV-C spectrum above and is human safe. Using this new technology is early stages. Some important sources below:

TED talk: A new weapon in the fight against superbugs, David Brenner

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YATYsgi3e5A&feature=emb_rel_end

CBS News report on fighting the flu with ultraviolet light

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8fh4LfUc-AI&feature=emb_rel_end

Disinfection and sanitization

Kills viruses, safe for humans

Early stages of development. Limited availability of products and what is available is very expensive for a typical consumer. Not FDA approved.

Ozone

Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O ₃. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. (Wikipedia)

Stand alone ozone machines are available and ozone is included as a feature product on many air purification systems.

Removes odors, disinfects, kills irritating airborne particles

Harmful to humans, only use in unoccupied spaces.

Hydroxyl

Hydroxyl radicals are highly reactive (easily becoming hydroxy groups) and consequently short-lived; however, they form an important part of radical chemistry.[2] Most notably hydroxyl radicals are produced from the decomposition of hydroperoxides (ROOH) or, in atmospheric chemistry, by the reaction of excited atomic oxygen with water. It is also an important radical formed in radiation chemistry, since it leads to the formation of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, which can enhance corrosion and SCC in coolant systems subjected to radioactive environments. Hydroxyl radicals are also produced during UV-light dissociation of H2O2 (suggested in 1879) and likely in Fenton chemistry, where trace amounts of reduced transition metals catalyze peroxide-mediated oxidations of organic compounds.

(Wikipedia)

Stand alone hydroxyl machines are available and primarily for industrial purposes like fire damage cleanup.

Removes odors, mold, mildew, bacteria, and airborne pathogens

More expensive than Ozone treatment

HEPA Filter

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters for air purification. Filters meeting the HEPA standard must satisfy certain levels of efficiency. Common standards require that a HEPA air filter must remove—from the air that passes through—at least 99.95% (European Standard)[4] or 99.97% (ASME, U.S. DOE)[5][6] of particles whose diameter is equal to 0.3 μm; with the filtration efficiency increasing for particle diameters both less than and greater than 0.3 μm.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HEPA 

Air filters, home and commercial use, range of levels.

Best option to reduce allergy suffering.

Cleaner air, more particles removed than with non-HEPA filters, filters out dust, allergens, mold

Higher cost than non HEPA, doesn’t remove odors. Best to use with Carbon filter.

Carbon Filter

Carbon filtering works by adsorption, in which pollutants in the fluid to be treated are trapped inside the pore structure[1] of a carbon substrate. The substrate is made of many carbon granules, each of which is itself highly porous. As a result, the substrate has a large surface area within which contaminants can be trapped. Activated carbon is typically used in filters, as it has been treated to have a much higher surface area than non treated carbon. One gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 3,000 m2 (32,000 sq ft)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_filtering

Air filters, home and commercial use

Filters smoke, fumes, chemicals, removes odors

Best to use with HEPA filter.

Technological development move quickly. If there’s something critical we’re missing above, either an entire technology geared towards clean and pure environments, or if we got any of our facts wrong, please reach out. tech@kataros.net